This article is an attempt to describe the purpose of anabolic / androgenic steroids (AAS) methods and their effects on the human body language accessible to non-professionals. Our goal - to make an overview of steroids, without focusing on the description of a particular one. Of course, the author does not approve of the use of steroids by someone not under control and not under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.
Types of steroids in the UK
Anabolic steroids can be roughly divided into two types: oral and injectable. When you take something (food or drugs) through the mouth, the vast majority of substances contained in them before you get into the main bloodstream passes through the liver. Therefore inject AAS are not suitable for oral administration because the liver deactivates steroids even when their "first pass" through it with the blood from the intestine (the "second pass" through the liver blood is carried by the portal vein to the waste products). The essence of deactivation consists in adding one or more hydroxyl groups (OH) steroid to a molecule that increases its solubility in water and facilitates the removal of human body in urine.
Steroid preparations intended for oral administration in the UK, are so modified steroid molecule, to make them more stable in liver passage and to prevent their premature withdrawal of blood. This modification is almost always carried out by the addition of an alkyl (methyl) group at 17-position of the steroid ring. Thus, the liver is still lower concentrations in the blood level of the AAC, but not as effectively as unmodified analogues. Therefore, oral steroids may make multiple cycles of blood passing through the liver before they will be eliminated from the body. Most oral steroids are excreted unchanged, albeit at different speeds.
Injectable steroids are derived from very good blood in just one of their passage through the liver. But if this is so, is there any sense in injections? How effective are they? The answer is called - "depot" (or reservoir). That is, in the human body by injection creates a "vault" steroids, from which there is a regular flow of blood. As soon as a steroid in the liver is removed from the bloodstream, the new number of steroid released into the blood from the depot. There are several ways to create such tanks.
1. USE OF SUSPENSIONS.
This technique, sometimes called "suspension", is the use of pure testosterone (crystalline solid) as a slurry, suspended solids in the water (the selling form «TestosteronDepot» drug). Since testosterone has a low solubility in water, its crystals slowly dissolved in an aqueous medium in the region of the human body, which is introduced into the suspension. With the dissolution of testosterone, it is carried by the blood throughout the body. Thus, the "depot" in this case - it is a real physical place where the injection is made. Crystals do not migrate to other parts of the body and the presence of a solid crystalline testosterone in the "store" may cause some pain at the injection site. Testosterone is dissolved at a relatively constant rate and the required concentration in the blood can be maintained for several days. Likewise it can be done "suspension" and other anabolic steroid Winstrol, known commercially as the «VinstrolDepot». (Translator's Note: "depot" in English means "warehouse storage depot").
2. USE OF ESTERS.
Another way to create a depot is to use a water-insoluble forms of the steroid, which may be converted in the body to its original shape steroid having some solubility in water (and hence blood). In most cases, this initial force steroid molecule to react with organic acid to obtain the ester soluble in oil but sparingly soluble in water. This process is called "esterification". Organic acids commonly used groups are: acetate (C2), propionate (C3), enanthate (C7), decanoate (C10) and undecylenate (C11). The longer the carbon chain is acid, the more oil-soluble ester is derived, and the longer it takes for him to turn back to the original steroid, ie, to carry out his "de-esterification". The presence of a particular enzyme in the human body facilitates the de-esterification reaction to form the initial shape of the steroid ester thereof. In fact, this enzyme is capable of catalysing a reaction in both directions, so that it can also be attached organic acid back to the initial steroid molecule. For example, testosteronaenantat can be converted into testosteronapalmitat. There is evidence that the steroid esters can be stored in fat cells. It is widely believed that esters form an oil / essential depot, which remains at the injection site. This is not true. Although the concept of creating a depot that is stockpiled - valid for the esters (because they are time slow release source steroid), esters actually distributed throughout the body after injection prior to (and during) the reaction de-esterification to form a parent steroid. They do not stay in the place where the injection was made. For example, ester testosteronaenantat was found in tissues throughout the body, including hair samples in those injected drug «T200». If an injection was made in non-sterile conditions, and infection occurred at the time of injection, the body will try to fight the infection and will encapsulation material is injected with the formation of an abscess. In this case, it may feel as if the administration of the substance remains at the injection site. But under normal sterile conditions of the procedure, an oil solution disperses throughout the body. Administering the drug in a large amount or too often in the same location does not lead to the appearance of an abscess.
Transporting blood steroids
Once the steroid was released from custody (or oral steroid sucked in the gut), begins his blood transportation. Carrier proteins (albumin and sex hormone-binding globulin) bind about 98% of the testosterone present in the blood in vivo. Thus, only 2% of this hormone are free, and may participate in some kind of process. When exogenous (adscititious) steroid appears in human blood, the levels of free steroid is much higher than 2%.
Note that the hormone is not always associated with some of the proteins, and a process of continuous formation and destruction of such links, and thus at any one time, about 2% in the unbound hormone are natural state. But if you imagine that somehow the 2% unbound hormone suddenly disappear, the proteins released more hormones to compensate for the shortfall. Blood is the transport mechanism through which hormones are delivered to their target tissues (muscles).
Activation of Androgen Receptor
As soon as the free steroid molecule reaches the muscle cell, it diffuses into it. Thus such penetration may be accomplished by a transport protein or without participation. Once in the cell, AAS moves towards the cell nucleus, where the steroid is contacted with an androgen receptor (AR) and activate it. Two activated receptor complex thus combine to form an androgen response element (EAO). Further EAO interacts with DNA in the nucleus and increases transcription (copying) of some genes (e.g., muscle protein gene). This will occur as long as the EAO remains intact. It must be remembered, however, that the AAS and receptors are continually changing their relationship, which then arises and disappears, similar to how this was to carrier proteins discussed above. Action EAO can stop if he will simply lose one of the two related receptors AAS AR. This explains why one gram of testosterone per week is more effective than its 1.2 grams per week, although 1.2 grams, seems to contain more than enough AAS to bind all AR in the human body. Higher concentration of AHA molecules increases the likelihood that the majority of AR contact with them, and the average number of EAC will remain unchanged for a longer period of time.
Activation of the androgen receptor is a key mechanism in the AAS action. However, this mechanism can not be explained by differences between steroids. For example, nandrolone (nandrolone) activates the AP is better than testosterone, but to a lesser extent increases muscle mass. When we speak of "other activities", the first thing we have in mind the effect on the central nervous system: increased motor and muscle activity and coordination, mood change (ie the appearance of power, pressure, and even some aggressiveness). The mechanism by which AAS causes such phenomena is not well understood at present. Also, one of the effects, which occurs in the liver, and certain steroids is caused, a "release" of certain growth factors. All of the above "other actions" steroids explain why the simultaneous use of two different tipovAASchasto is better than a single.
Removal of steroids from the body
The liver is the main route of decontamination steroids. Here it changes their chemical structure, whereby they become soluble in water and capable of excretion by the kidneys. At the same time, substantial amounts of many steroids are excreted without undergoing any changes in the liver, or to form a water soluble sulfates. Many doctors believe that AAS may cause liver damage, because when applied there is an increase in blood enzymes AST and ALT. It is known that elevated levels of these enzymes are observed in patients with liver damage in certain diseases, it can therefore be concluded that the AAS and cause liver damage, as measured by the level of AST and ALT. Recent work by scientists, however, have shown that a true marker of liver damage, the enzyme GGT is. However, its level remains unchanged with some izAAS. Thus, there is still the question of whether all AAS really harm the liver? At the same time, it found that the 17 alpha-alkylation AAS can actually damage the liver in some rare cases, and that this effect is reversible and disappears after elimination of the use of steroids. Concerns often arise about the possibility of AAC to harm the kidneys, but it is also unlikely.
The only thing we can say is that 1 gram, may be better than 500 mg, but the possibility of side effects while also certainly increase. As mentioned above, "500 mg seems more than sufficient to saturate all communication AP in the body." Once you enter the medication in larger quantities than are your receptors "process", the chances of side effects are high enough.